The researchers are hopeful the emperor penguins will avoid extinction by adapting to the shrinking ice. To do this, the penguins would need to migrate or change breeding patterns. Unfortunately, emperor penguins are known for being slow to change. "The penguin is long-lived, and climate change is happening very quickly, so there will be significant impact on the population before many generations have passed," says Hal Caswell biologist at the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution. Thus it will be difficult for adaptation, even if possible, to happen fast enough."