The trade in protected species is lucrative. According to a 2008 Congressional report, the global black market may be worth more than $20 billion a year. Cerniglia pointed at a shelf of mounted birds, tortoises and antlers. "Those trophies are worth $35,000 each," he said. A pound of rhino horn, which practitioners of traditional Chinese medicine prescribe for fever, gout and other maladies, can fetch $22,000. Yet perpetrators are seldom caught and rarely punished. In the U.S., Cerniglia said, inspectors typically confiscate violators' items and exact no further penalty. The Fish and Wildlife Service prosecutes just 10,000 violations annually, and most cases are settled before trial. Other countries demonstrate even less concern. In one case in 2006, Japanese customs officers confiscated 5,310 pounds of elephant ivory. The smuggler, who claimed that the ivory was "artificial marble," was fined the equivalent of $7,500, less than one tenth of 1 percent of the ivory's market value.