Before you start chowing down on white bread by the bagful, it's important to note that there are some limits to the study. For starters, the sample size was small, though its experimental (rather than observational) design does work in its favor. But Elinav was mostly focused on glycemic response, not overall nutrition. Industrialized bread has a bad reputation for more than just the potential glycemic response: it's also lower in nutrients. Whole wheat breads tend to have more fiber and vitamins, including magnesium, zinc, and folic acid. A lot of the patients Elinav studies tend to have diabetes or pre-diabetes, so focusing on health risks related to blood sugar made sense. But for most of us, there are other things to consider at mealtime.