Grants often are the only thing keeping labs open and running, so if there's not a steady stream of cash coming in, researchers have to switch their area of interest to something more easily funded. Lacey Wallace, an assistant professor of criminal justice at Penn State, wrote in 2017 that "Lack of funding leaves some researchers, like myself, limited to small-scale studies with a low budget. The problem with studies like these is that they are often based on samples that are not nationally representative. That means we can't generalize from the findings or address all the questions we might have." And without that research, she noted, we're not going to get answers to the many open questions we have about gun violence.