Deep red fluorescent proteins like the ones identified in the study, don't just help corals stay alive—they're helpful in medical research as well. Individual human protein cells are too small for us to see, but by tagging them with a fluorescent protein helps scientists to watch them in action. By illuminating cells, fluorescent proteins have helped researchers track diseases like HIV and confirm the existence of cancerous cells. In 2008, Martin Chalfie, Osamu Shimomura, and Roger Tsien received the Nobel Prize in chemistry for their discovery and development of green fluorescent protein (GFP) isolated from the jellyfish Aequorea victoria. GFP, however, has its limitations—which is why scientists are continue to hunt for new forms that could be useful in medical research.