To meet the Paris Agreement goals, which attempt to limit average global warming to 2 degrees Celsius, “the wealthier parts of the world would need to be zero carbon energy by about 2035,” Kevin Anderson, a climate scientist at the University of Manchester, explains. “And the poorer parts, including China, would have to deliver zero carbon energy by about 2050. And by that I mean everything—cars, planes, ships, industry, all of the energy would be zero carbon by 2050, globally, for us to have a reasonable chance of the two-degree framing of climate change.” It’s not that we lack the technological tools, Anderson says. It’s that the enormity of the task, and the sacrifices involved, haven’t yet sunk in. “I think it will be hugely challenging,” he adds.