The new study is a pretty fascinating milestone of a project that has been going on now for nearly 60 years, but the results themselves should not be considered proof of what gene or gene regions definitely dictate whether a canine can be made into a good boy or not. “Many genes are interacting together in complex ways to regulate the behavior traits,” says Zhang. For example, one genetic region that varied between populations is associated with Williams-Beuren syndrome, a disorder that stereotypically causes incredibly outgoing and friendly personalities in humans. One would expect this region to show up in the tame foxes, but it was popping up in the aggressive ones instead. On the other hand, people with Williams-Beuren syndrome also experience high bouts of anxiety. In foxes, anxiety can fuel fear of humans, which would invariably lead to aggressive responses. Tracing the path from genotype to phenotype is oftentimes a horrendously tangled mess.