Across the developed world, conventional farmers have relied heavily on chemical weed control since the mid-1900s. In 1996, Monsanto made chemical control even easier by bringing herbicide-tolerant soybeans to the market (other crops followed). The seeds were genetically-engineered to withstand a popular broad-spectrum herbicide called glyphosate, marketed as Roundup Ready, which meant farmers could plant the crops, spray the field with herbicide, and call it a day. Monsanto didn't spark the love affair with herbicides, but extended it, says Stephen Duke, a plant physiologist and glyphosate expert with the USDA Agricultural Research Service: "It continued our dependence on herbicide, but even in the absence of the GMOs, we were pretty much extremely dependent on herbicides. It really didn't change anything—it just changed which herbicide we were using."