A copy of the genetic code of an H7N9 avian flu—similar to, but not exactly the same as the flu that has killed 36 people in China—arrived in a lab in Boston Easter Sunday, 2011. By Saturday, scientists had made a vaccine against it, the Boston Globe reported.
That turnaround time is weeks faster than the current best vaccine-making methods. The new shot-making strategy still needs to undergo approval from the U.S. Food and Drug Administration. It also needs tweaking before it would able to make the large amounts of vaccine needed during a flu outbreak, the editors of the journal Science wrote in a summary of the work. If the method does make it to market, however, it could speed the response to flu pandemics.
"I think it does have great potential for more rapidly preparing vaccines for new strains as they evolve," Robert Finberg, chair of the University of Massachusetts Medical School and a flu researcher, told the Boston Globe.
The new method uses synthetic biology, or the creation of biological materials, such as viruses, without using nature's usual reproductive methods. In this case, scientists from the U.S. pharmaceutical company Novartis and from the J. Craig Venter Institute built H7N9 viruses from looking at the genetic code they received on Easter. Normally, vaccine manufacturers don't make copies of a flu virus simply from a "paper" (In this case it was electronic, like an email) copy of its code. They actually have to have some virus to make more virus.
It's as if in the past, scientists always needed to have a burger on hand to make more burgers. The Novartis and J. Craig Venter Institute scientists, on the other hand, looked at a recipe for a burger and made more burgers from individual ingredients. Scientists around the world have previously used synthetic biology to engineer bacteria. J. Craig Venter, namesake of the institute involved in making the new vaccine, made a bacterium almost entirely from scratch in 2010.
Once they had their synthetic H7N9, scientists made a vaccine from a benign form of the virus that stimulates the human immune system, but can't give people the actual flu. They also came up with some other innovations helped them speed the vaccine-making process. The Boston Globe has more details.
Making the original virus synthetically helps with speed because it's much faster to send electronic copies of a virus' code around the world than it is to carefully ship samples of the actual virus, MIT Technology Review reported.
The biggest bottleneck now is performing the tests that will convince regulatory agencies that this method makes safe, effective vaccines, the Science editors wrote. Science published a paper about the synthetic vaccine last week.
Perhaps fiction might prove to a future telling of humanity with current science.
Reavers from the movie Serenity:
Reavers are believed by most of the 'verse to be men that went insane at the edge of space and became savage. They stared into the void beyond and became what they saw: nothing. They gave into their primal nature and all that was civilized was discarded.
However, key members of the Alliance's Parliament know better, and the crew of Serenity eventually discover their true origin. Most folks believe that Reavers are no longer human. It's easier to believe they have nothing in common with the rest of humanity.
Origin and Infection originated from Miranda, the outermost planet in a distant solar system. The Alliance had been testing behavioral modification on this planet through the chemical G-23 Paxilon Hydrochlorate (a.k.a. "The Pax" - latin for "Peace"), administered through the air recycling systems. The chemical was designed to weed out aggression and anger. The ultimate result was that 99.9% of the population stopped going to work, talking to each other, and eventually stopped moving, eating or breeding, and therefore died. However, the remaining tenth of a percent of the population had the opposite reaction, with their aggression and primal instincts boosted beyond simple madness into murderous rage, sadism and xenophobia.
Being transformed into a Reaver does not seem to be exclusively chemical in origin. Some victims of Reaver attacks are left alive and forced by Reavers to view the tortures they inflict on others. When this happens, the person's mind can be so damaged by what they were shown that the only way to cope with it is to begin to act as a Reaver does, eventually becoming one themselves. Reavers may themselves be able to detect those humans that are part of the 0.1% that are susceptible to become like themselves and these are the men and women they "convert." This was witnessed on one occasion by the crew of the Serenity when they found one such victim on a derelict ship (Bushwhacked). Mal's knowledge of this indicates that he either has heard of such things before or witnessed it himself.
Key traits are, at least genetically, human in more or less every way. They have no known physical mutations- the primary difference between normal humans of the 'verse and Reavers is their utter and complete madness. Showing no care for life, they are driven by an insane, homicidal and xenophobic aggression that manifests in the cannibalism, rape, and torture that they visit upon any unfortunate enough to come across them.
Reavers are impossible to mistake for anything else. As a symptom of their insanity, they deliberately gash and cut their own flesh, and a Reaver is often covered in open or partially healed wounds. Barbaric piercings and random bits of metal shoved into their flesh are also common, giving them a ghastly and corpse-like air. They seem no physically stronger or tougher than normal humans- merely inured to pain to the point where they care nothing for their injuries or indeed their own lives, and more willing to push their bodies to the extreme because of their madness.
Exactly how sentient individual Reavers are remains an open question. Although they clearly must have some retention of any original knowledge prior to their madness (as evidenced by their command of starships and weapons) Reavers are as without fear as they are without mercy, and they have never been seen to speak or indeed communicate (although that may be because any time they are observed they are on the hunt). The sole sound they make is an insane, wordless scream, which adds to the mystery of how a group of creatures little more than beasts could run a starship to the degree that they do. Indeed, Reaver ships may, although rarely, attack each other.
Reaver territory is centered about the rim of known space, and at least one massive gathering was present around the planet Miranda. They do not, however, live on any planet. Instead, Reavers spend their entire lives aboard their grotesque spacecraft, floating through the void and setting planetfall only to raid and pillage before leaving for the hunt once more. Normally they stay within their own territory and only venture out on raids, rather than moving en masse to attack the Alliance or the border worlds.
It has been observed/implied on at least two occasions that Reavers do not bother with already-dead prey, preferring, if not insisting, that their victims be alive. At one point, three Reavers were about to attack a man, but when Mal shot him, they gave up their effort. At another point, Mal, Zoë, Jayne, and River were on their Mule, being chased by a Reaver hovercraft. When Jayne questions why the Reavers did not destroy the Mule, River muttered to herself, "They want us alive when they eat us." Both these events take place in the film. In the same vein, the Reavers did not bother to attack the 99.9% of Miranda's population that were pacified by the chemical, as these people would have had no reaction.
Reavers in combat seem to favor close combat, although they are fully capable of using firearms. It is likely that their reduced mental abilities makes firearms a poor choice. Instead, they rush forward, occasionally firing at victims if stymied, and overwhelm their enemies in a deadly charge with crude blades and melee weapons. If nothing else is available, they may be found clawing and biting their prey with bare hands and teeth. Although they occasionally carry conventional firearms, Reavers also seem to use poisoned needles, and very frequently a form of large speargun. The aim of both weapons is probably to ensure that the victim is alive when taken. Utterly fearless, they will charge until they are wiped out - casualties don't seem to matter much to a Reaver band.
Reavers seem to prefer to subdue their victims. Those unfortunates who are rendered helpless or fall are either raped to death, eaten alive, flayed, or commonly all three, as well as other horrific depravities. After they finally escape into death, the Reavers will sew their skins into their clothing, and may very well either hang up the corpses as a gruesome trophy or strap them to their starcraft. Reaver craft are almost inevitably festooned with at least a few skeletons.
On a planetary raid, Reavers target settlements without strong defenses. After raping, murdering and eating the inhabitants, Reavers will burn the settlement to the ground. Most of the time Reavers stick to their hunting territories; however, over the few years directly prior to the pilot episode, the Reavers had begun to expand from their territories. This was likely caused by the depletion of food sources as settlers learned to steer clear.
Reaver spacecraft starships are abominations: older-line models for the most part, often no longer used by other inhabitants of the 'verse. They are festooned with bits of random debris and ghoulish junk, a characteristic paint scheme of red slashes, and the skeletons of their prey, and are frequently armed with a magnetic grappler with which to seize victim ships. Reaver craft have a savage and funereal air, and are not in particularly good shape—they are almost inevitably running without reactor containment, which means the inhabitants are constantly being bombarded with radiation at suicidal levels. This allows the Reavers starships to run down other ships that would normally be able to outrun their pursuers. Reaver ships seem to broadcast a nightmarish chorus screaming across channels, although whether this is a recording used to induce fear, the howling of their inhabitants or the sounds of their victims is uncertain.
In space raids, Reavers target poorly defended ships and cargo transport vessels. They do this by catching the vessel with a magnetic grappler. Once on board Reavers quickly subdue the passengers and commence with their depraved pleasures. Once that's done they string up the bodies in a place where they can be found by rescue parties—they sometimes leave a trap attached to the hull of the derelict to cripple rescue ships. This means, of course, that the ship will be left stranded- and easy prey for the Reavers if they choose to return. Once a civilian ship is boarded by Reavers, it is doomed, because the close confines of a ship are natural settings for savage melees.
Reavers in space battles display the same degree of suicidal insanity that they do on land. They seem to display the same preference for close combat when in their craft—Reavers slam into enemy starships without pause, heedless to the damage to their own hulls, and their ships may very well be armed with folding 'arms' ending in large blades that presumably may be used to rend and tear rammed victims. The sheer weight and inertia of their ships may buckle warship hulls. Their ships are also armed with conventional starcraft weapons, as well as electromagnetic pulse beams, which aid in their capturing of potential victims by shutting down electrical systems.
Known Reaver spacecraft are as follows;
The Universe Battle A large number of Reaver ships, perhaps the majority of them, was lured out of Reaver space by the Serenity crew. The Reaver fleet chased the small vessel until it reached the homeworld of Mr. Universe, where it encountered an equally unprepared and surprised Anglo-Sino Alliance Fleet. The two collections of warships clashed in the outer atmosphere of the planet in the Universe Battle. The Alliance won the battle but paid at a very high price in personnel and spacecraft, leaving the Reavers greatly reduced in numbers.
Synthetic Biologists? Now that's a story!
Its not technically wrong, but its funny as hell.
yea though Craig Venter(aka Craig Christ) hath created life from non life, they believed in him not, and pressed him to cure the plague and perform other miracles. And it came to pass that he did turn email into virus, and those who witnessed were surely amazed.
And they said of him "Thou art truly CRAIG, for thou hast given life from lifeless ROCK, and on that ROCK we shall build a strong foundation"
If you rock virus moves quickly, it will be
boulderdash,.... lol.... snort..
I would suggest that the current flu was engineered. They released the data on how to do it, and if americans can do the vaccine in a week, imagine what others who aren't seeking a cure could have done in nearly a year. The question i ask is, was it done for profit , or out of malice. either way, the new flu strain exists. and there are no vaccines that work for it. (even with 180% adjuvant)
On paper , this is great. But it is not a working vaccine.