Karl Pearson, a renowned statistician and eugenicist, said in a famous 1903 lecture that Britain was "ceasing as a nation to breed intelligence," according to In the Name of Eugenics: Genetics and the Uses of Human Heredity by Yale history professor Daniel Kevles. Britain suffered "a dearth of national ability," evidenced by the lack of any Britons inventing airplanes or automobiles. This was a result of lower, "unfit" segments of the population contributing a disproportionate supply of offspring, Pearson argued. He believed intelligence could not be taught or earned, but merely inherited. Natural selection, he argued, had been replaced by "reproductive selection," in which evolutionary winners were "the most fertile, not the most fit," Pearson said.