Anthony Atala, a stem-cell specialist at Wake Forest University, conceived of a different approach than using organs from donors: making custom organs from scratch. In 1999 he first made a bladder for a patient from the patient's own stem cells and is working to adapt the technique for kidneys and other organs. The method should be successful for people with nongenetic problems, such as spina bifida and smoking-related lung disease. For those with genetic illnesses, however, such as cystic fibrosis, muscular dystrophy and some cancers, organs made from their cells would most likely express the same problems that led the person to need a transplant in the first place. The solution? Work from someone else's healthier stem cells, but match them to patients with extreme precision. Atala and his team have started collecting stem cells from amniotic fluid and placenta for a stem-cell bank that will contain more than 100,000 unique samples, sufficient for a close-to-exact match for 90 percent of Americans.