One pioneering surgeon stands out in his quest to figure out how to create an artificial hip: John Charnley, who worked in a former tuberculosis hospital in Wrightington, England. In the early 1960s, he replaced elderly patients’ hips by doing two things: swapping the tops of their femurs with a metal prosthesis that he cemented into the thigh bone, and giving them a new socket for it to fit into. But he made the socket out of Teflon, which wore down quickly and created debris particles (which you don’t want in your body). Those early hips were failures. When he found a promising alternative, he did what any sensible surgeon would: stuck a piece of it in his own thigh for nine months to see what would happen. Find out more on this week's show!