You Can Blow Soap Bubbles And Instantly Freeze Them Into Ice Orbs | Popular Science
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You Can Blow Soap Bubbles And Instantly Freeze Them Into Ice Orbs

A breath of beauty

Frozen Bubble

Frozen Bubble

Canadian photographer Chris Ratzlaff blows soap bubbles and then photographs them as they freeze.

Chris Ratzlaff

In the wake of America’s recent snowpocalypse, it seems only fitting to remind you that some truly wondrous things can come out of bad weather. For photographer Chris Ratzlaff, it’s the opportunity to freeze soap bubbles. While it takes some practice, anyone can recreate the jaw-dropping effect at home—so long as “home” happens to be somewhere very, very cold.

A storm chaser by trade, Ratzlaff has been perfecting the art of bubble freezing for years. “Bubbles are such ephemeral things,” he says. “To be able to literally freeze them in time is such a rare experience.”

There’s some interesting science at play here. Every bubble is made up of three individual layers: a thin layer of water molecules squished between two layers of soap. It might look like the entire surface of the bubble is freezing, but what you’re actually seeing is the innermost layer of water—which freezes at warmer temperatures than soapy water—turning to ice within the film.

Frozen Bubble As Ice Forms

Frozen Bubble As Ice Forms

You can see ice forming at the top and bottom of this bubble.

Chris Ratzlaff

Unfortunately, the frozen bubbles don’t last long. As ice crystals form in the bubble’s surface, something else forms along with them: cracks. This means that any air trapped inside the sphere suddenly has an escape route. As air molecules diffuse through the tiny cracks between ice crystals, the sudden drop in internal pressure causes the bubble to implode, crushed by the force of the atmosphere.

Before the bubbles pop, Ratzlaff takes photos and videos of the freezing process. “Watching the ice crystals dance across the surface of the bubble as they freeze is mesmerizing,” he says. “When you photograph them, they look like tiny little planets. It fires the imagination.”

Frozen Bubble With Prism Effect

Frozen Bubble With Prism Effect

As light hits this partially-frozen bubble, the ice refracts the light, producing colors.

Chris Ratzlaff

You can replicate Ratzlaff’s work by following the instructions below. (If you do, please send photos and videos to manual@popsci.com). But before you run out to buy materials, check the outdoor temperature: Because soap is a great insulator, this trick works best when it’s colder than -13 degrees Fahrenheit (-25 degrees Celsius). We weren’t kidding when we said “very cold”!

Stats:

  • Time: 2 hours
  • Cost: $10.00
  • Difficulty: Easy to medium

Tools + Materials:

  • Bowl and spoon
  • 200 milliliters warm water (for freezing)
  • 35 ml corn syrup (for thickness)
  • 35 ml dish soap (for bubble formation)
  • 2 tablespoons sugar (for crystallization)
  • 1 plastic straw
  • Squeezable bottle (optional)
DIY Bubble Blower

DIY Bubble Blower

Ratzlaff's "ambient air bubble inflation device," which he uses to blow his soap bubbles, consists of a straw in a squeezable bottle.

Chris Ratzlaff

Instructions:

  1. Mix liquids and sugar in a small bowl, and store in the freezer. Lowering the mixture’s temperature will help your bubbles freeze faster when they land. After 30 minutes, take the bowl out and give its contents another stir.
  2. Find a cold, textured surface to stick your bubbles. Ready, aim, and fire! Blowing bubbles with a straw rather than a store-bought dipstick will create less sticky, frozen mess.
  3. If you really want to go for it, you can rig the straw to a squeezable bottle (see Ratzlaff's version above). The breath you exhale will be much warmer than the ambient air inside the bottle. So this method can help keep your bubble mix cold as it floats to its final resting place.
  4. Be patient! “Even with the perfect formula, many bubbles will pop before you’ll have one that freezes for you,” says Ratzlaff. “The slightest breeze can pop them.”

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