- a loss of Cronobacter, known to cause a plethora of infections particularly in neonates;
- a loss of members of the Proteobacteria, which are associated with inflammation and the onset of C. difficile infection;
- an increase in the normal microbial flora Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes;
- an increase in the Lachnospiraceae family, a recognized member of healthy gut microbiota
- an increase in Akkermansia, a mucus-degrader in the human gut known to be associated with healthy individuals and thought to be involved in the prevention of obesity and colitis.