The first wave of infections for both armies included childhood illnesses; later came dysentery and other diseases spread through packed camps.
Doctors prescribed laxatives and emetics—drugs that make you poop and throw up, respectively—to soldiers with diarrhea and dysentery. Whoops.
Surgeons used the same bloody instruments and sponges on one patient after another in assembly-line-like surgeries.
Some hospitals were located in barns, and the manure on the floors helped spread tetanus.
Soldiers tried to self-inoculate from smallpox with the pus of other soldiers' sores, even though the latter could have been from syphilis or other diseases.
Many soldiers didn't have access to even these medical treatments. Because of discriminatory care, the ratio of black soldiers to die from disease was 9 to 1.