After a five-year study of 200,000 galaxies, scientists are more certain than ever that dark energy acts as a repulsive force, tearing the universe apart at an accelerating rate. The research confirms the idea that dark energy dominates gravity throughout the cosmos. But no one has any idea what dark energy actually is or how it works.
The WiggleZ project used NASA's Galaxy Evolution Explorer space telescope and a massive Australian observatory to peer back 7 billion years in time, equivalent to the cosmic time span that has been dominated by dark energy. It's the first time a single study has looked at such a lengthy period of cosmic history.
Dark energy was first proposed in the 1990s as astronomers discovered supernovae were moving away from us at accelerating speeds. This did not fit with prevailing theories of gravity, so scientists determined a new force called dark energy was to blame. The new survey independently verifies those earlier cosmological expansion observations, according to researchers at NASA and the Swinburne University of Technology in Melbourne, Australia.
The universe is about 13.7 billion years old, according to the best estimates, and for a little more than half that life it was dominated by the influence of gravity. All the baryonic matter, meaning matter with atoms and their constituent parts, was close enough together for gravity to have an influence. It helped form galaxies and galaxy clusters, for instance. But roughly 8 billion years after the Big Bang first flung everything apart, as the universe grew more and more diffuse, gravity's power apparently succumbed to the increasing influence of dark energy. Galaxy cluster formation slowed down. Things started to fall apart.
To measure this, the researchers used a 3-D map created by NASA's Galaxy Evolution Explorer, which identified bright, young galaxies in the distant universe. Then the team used the Anglo-Australian Telescope to gather detailed light information about each galaxy. They examined the patterns of distance between pairs of galaxies, which tend to wind up about 490 million light years apart. (This has to do with sound waves left over from the very early universe that resulted in areas of higher or lower pressure.) As the universe has expanded because of dark energy, this pattern has shifted.
The team also measured the rate at which galaxy clusters have been growing, and were able to show that something is counteracting gravity, slowing down the clusters' formation.
This information was combined with data about how quickly the galaxy pairs are moving away from us, and together that verifies the earlier supernova findings: Yes, they are moving away, and yes, it is happening faster and faster.
Dark energy accounts for about 73 percent of the mass-energy of the universe. Dark matter, which is only slightly better understood, makes up about 23 percent of the universe. The remaining 4 percent is baryonic matter — galaxies, stars, the solar system, and you.
Dark energy will continue to speed up this cosmic expansion, and someday, everything will be so far apart that we won't be able to see other galaxies or even other stars in the Milky Way. Let's hope we find ETs before then.
I think this is the Dark Lord at work!! 8 Billion years ago he cursed the universe with black magic ... so we have dark energy and dark matter. There!! here is your explanation popsci ;D
- Darth Lithicus
Can anyone see where I parked the car?!
@kamydon: that was the Dark Lord Chuckles the silly piggy right?
@BubbaGump: yeah its over by the blackhole
I know there is a reason to study this stuff beyond "Because we don't know what it really is?" and really I don't care to know why so long as it is done. Knowledge for Knowledge sake.
Its great to know the whole universe. But please don't forget to take care of the family.
wow. so one day the moon will be as far away from the earth as pluto is? its amazing. maybe dark matter and dark energy is the blood of a super being and the universe is his brain which consists of planets and galaxies and everything else in our universe and we are its white blood cells.
Hey Mom! Look at me! I am here! I am jumping up! Do you see me! Mom! Mom! Hey!
The Universe is 13.7 billion years old. Compared to what? This suggest a starting point. What came before the starting point. How long ago was that? Why a starting point at all? If you have a point, this suggest an exterior. A point has a bottom, top, sides, beginning and a future. We know the points future, we are currently in it as a present as we contemplate the past. But what about the time before the past and what was outside the point, when it was just a little baby point? Yes we are focusing on the point of origin, but what about all that space. And what is at the edge of space. Is their an edge to space, a wall maybe. What about the wall? How tall and thick is the wall. Is the wall older or younger than the point. Can I climb over the wall. Are there people outside the wall trying to come in. Why do they want to come in. Are they hungry. I have nothing to offer them. All I have is stupid little point. I think I have lost my point. Has anyone seen it?
To all the above comments...
ARE YOU HIGH?!
You think This is gaining "Knowledge for Knowledge sake"?!
This is one of the most important discoveries of the human race. We learn these things to do other things like, oh, I don't know, travel faster than light, colonize other planets, further our race by understanding its origin.
Please stop smoking so much weed... thanks.
Would you prefer the Jesus Saves comments poisoning every article? How about long ranting about aliens and their plans for us? I find the nonsense posted above an upgrade over the usual.
... ok your right...
To answer your question, I would like neither. I would like, however, an engaging dialogue between intelligent people who are actually interesting to read...but... who are we kidding... it's the internet...
It is the work of the Daleks…
@Siromar alien Jesus has plans to save us.
I think it would be funny if dark energy was really just the effect matter has on space/time. Spend all this time looking for mysterious particles and all along it was warped space.
This particular data doesnt really mean much other than the fact that everything is tearing apart. We are so infinitesimal that I am not sure we will ever trully grasp this and if we did we could really do anything with or about it.
Dark energy is equal to the questions of what is in outer space. I don't know, its dark. But if you happen to have a really big desk, a high position, receive lots of GOVERNMENT grants, then you add lots of math and complicated words, to keep the grants a coming..
It's all theory ya know....
The edge of the universe is a wall of time.
As the universe stretches, time slows such that you'll never reach the edge because time is fighting against you. You just keep slowing and slowing until you stop at the 'edge'.
I think the use of the term "confirms that dark energy exists" in the title of the article is too strongly worded. The survey continues to support the notion of dark energy given our current understanding of gravitational theory. Unfortunately that theory is not well understood over cosmological distances. Dark energy was a contrivance by cosmologists to fit with what they saw and their understanding of gravity. Who knows, as our understanding of gravity improves or simply changes, the invented contrivance may one day prove unnecessary.
I am all for theories. Hey a person got to start somewhere. It may as well be his best guess and his imagination. From theories we contrive test to validate and make fact.
I am going to call dark energy by the proper term "negative energy."
Newton's gravitational constant G is equal to the speed of light squared divided by the linear mass of the universe. Linear mass is so many kilograms per meter. The speed of light squared is the angular frequency of space squared times the Planck length squared. The Planck length is the bottom geometrical limit of our dimension in meters.
Thus the gravitational constant is equal to the angular frequency squared divided by the mass density. The mass density being the linear mass divided by Planck length squared (kilograms per cubic meter).
By crossing a magnetic field with an electromagnetic field, negative mass density is produced over time.
Thus the gravitational constant is negative because it is inversely proportional to negative mass density. Because the force of gravity is proportional to G, the force of gravity becomes negative so things fly apart.
This phenomenon can be seen in Richard Hoagland's NASA Space Shuttle video where the alien mothership shoots out into outer space with an acceleration of millions of g's. By creating negative energy, they reversed the gravitational field so that they are repelled from earth. Using another technique, they make the mothership weightless by bringing in low-density hyperspace energy around the hull. So the force is large and negative, the mass is almost zero, and the mothership accelerates at a tremendous speed away from earth, avoiding the rail gun attack by our destroyers located in the Australian harbor.
G = c*c/Omega
c*c = omega*omega*Λ*Λ
G = omega*omega*Λ*Λ/Omega = omega*omega/Omega/Λ*Λ
G = omega*omega/(-ρ)
G = -omega*omega/ρ
which is a negative gravitational constant.
c = speed of light
G = gravitational constant
omega = angular frequency of the universe
Omega = linear mass of the universe
ρ = mass density of the universe
Λ = Planck length
"To measure this, the researchers used a 3-D map created by NASA’s Galaxy Evolution Explorer, which identified bright, young galaxies in the distant universe." The 3-D mapped used for the measurment is itself outdated since galaxies are moving apart with big velocity. According to Heisenberg uncertainty principle, the position and velocity can't be measured simultaneously.fussy.
That only applies to quantum mechanics. You cannot know both the position and velocity of a particle. You can measure those properties for larger objects with ease. For an example, you can say a car is driving north at 30 m/s and is currently at such and such coordinates.
I like the theory ( forgive me for no remembering the scientists name) that explains the universes expanding because other universes beyond ours are affecting it gravitationally. Kind of an interesting way to explain dark energy, expansion due to gravitational influence from other universes.
To get a better explanation watch episode 2 of Naked science.
@Ananta - One Problem with Coming up with a grand unifying theory is what you described. Phenomena that happens at the particle level (such as the uncertainty principle) does not apply on the cosmic scale, or at least we don't understand how it does.
I have a book written for Maple 12 by a professor who derives the uncertainty principle for any wave. Instead of reduced Planck's constant divided by 2, he gets pi/2.
So the principle applies at any scale.
This could be the key to teleportation. Notice in the original Super 8 movie of the Beamship teleporting away, the countryside turned a green color. Green is the color of light between space and hyperspace. So they are using a very low mass density because the speed of light in hyperspace is 1 meter/second.
To see this, reduced Planck's constant is linear mass of the universe * Planck length squared * speed of light. Momentum of space is linear mass * Planck length * speed of light. So the change in distance is Planck length/2 which is Planck wavelength per 4pi solid angle of a sphere. The Planck wavelength is the boundary of our dimension with the Planck mass (linear mass * Planck length).
See if you can figure out how teleportation works!
I'm still so fascinated by the fact that we cannot SEE dark matter, but it has such a drastic effect on our universe.
Wouldn't this imply that either:
A) Dark Matter must be a perfect black-body radiator (leaving it 'invisible' to our eyes because of the lack of any sort of light - akin to a Black Hole)
B) If not, Dark Matter would need to travel with v > c, because if something were to travel faster than the speed of light, we would be unable to see it moving around us.
Option A seems more plausible, but what about option B? If we actually found a particle that could travel with speeds in excess of c, what would be THAT particles limit? Maybe it cannot travel SLOWER than c ( in respect to our normal matter being unable to travel FASTER than c ). That would make "finding" these particles rather difficult!
Hail alien jesus!
No seriously, this is amazing science. I am always fascinated when we crack open a sliver from the universes box of secrets. It's almost as fun a reading all these random ass coments, scribed from the minds of moms basement intellectuals. Don't pretend to understand one crumb of how this magic ball of dust and gas works it's voodoo. Now help me light this bong. 8}
0/0 is the answer to the riddle.
@Give_ammo...LMFAO, duuuude, fire it up!
Perhaps we're looking at this dark energy the wrong way
here's my hypothesis, Dark energy could be a representation of "time" in space.
What if this "dark energy" tearing the universe apart is not really tearing anything apart at all.
Perhaps the universe is still a miniature representation of what we think of it to be, and everything is right next to each other, but because of this, "dark energy"-effect if you will, it seems as if we are "millions" of light-years away from one another.
Space travel takes so much time, cut what if we could "skip" the dark energy, perhaps we could travel trough time?
What do you guys think?
@rAvez - Talking about traveling through time, I was talking to someone about a device that produces a linear gear tooth space-time curvature that is used as an anti-gravity elevator. I was surprised when he mentioned a similar device being developed at a university in California, possible UCLA, that produces this same curvature, yet they use it to move forward or backward in time.
Einstein's Theory of General Relativity does have a pressure component along the centerline of the tensor. The tt-component, which is the time component in the upper left hand corner of the matrix, mimics the pressure component. So there is a time-travel component in the calculation.
Of course Billy Meier traveled back in time with Semjase and he said the air was much purer then than today. She also moved a tree in another location in the past so that the Beamship would not get entangled with it in the future.
Andrew Basiago was also a time traveler into the future where he saw Obama and Bush becoming president. Bush didn't bother reading the memo about the attack because he already knew it was going to happen. Apparently FEMA moved their office closer to ground zero, and the Pentagon moved Cheney's office to the other side of the building to avoid the crash.
The other thing to study is the time warp field where plants develop quickly in the field where time is speeded up. I have seen a woman put a seedling in the palm of her hand and then when she opened her hand up, the seed had leaves on it. She was teaching others to do the same thing.
Since we are about to have another 2 billion people on the planet, this might be a way to feed them by having many harvests in one year.