Ahner says they got the genes for this study from Thermobifida fusca, a common compost bacteria. Currently, laundry manufacturers produce the enzymes that go into laundry detergent via microbial bioreactors: big, spinning vats of bacteria that produce Cel6A. Scientists must use some type of life form—whether it’s bacteria, plants, or animals—to produce a genetically modified organism, and there’s some disadvantages to every method. The first organism that researchers ever used were bacteria, which made human insulin that was first officially sold in 1982. But bacteria requires a sterile environment, which means that scientists have to use expensive cleaning equipment and time-consuming precaution procedures. Animals are another option—but they have nervous systems, which cause a whole host of moral and logistical problems.