The distance from icy Arctic waters to existing medical centers is mind-boggling. For instance, last September a Canadian Coast Guard helicopter crashed in M'Clure Strait in the Arctic Ocean, roughly 370 miles west of Resolute, a small Inuit hamlet on an island in the Northwest Passage. All three men in the aircraft, who were conducting ice research, died of hypothermia in the ocean. Martin Fortier, executive director of ArcticNet, a consortium that manages Canada's Arctic scientific research, told the Arctic Frontiers conference that the crash site was 4,000 kilometers (2,485 miles) from Trenton, Ontario, the nearest medical center. For perspective, he said, "That's about as far as traveling from Tromsø to Africa."