Of course, the bolder the experiment, the greater the risks. Three team managers connected with the Houston sign-stealing scandal have now been dismissed, and the Boston Red Sox, the 2018 World Series champions, are also under investigation. More recently, rumors have spread that multiple Astros wore miniature buzzers at the plate, though no damning evidence has surfaced. What is clear is that MLB is up against a major reckoning. “There’s a belief that is treated by players and staff as fact: That illegal sign stealing, particularly through advanced technology, is everywhere,” Athletic reporters Ken Rosenthal and Evan Drellich wrote back in November. New gadgets and computers will give the cheaters of tomorrow the power to predict opponents’ moves, conceal communications, and threaten norms across pro sports. We spoke to a few engineers, mathematicians, and codebreakers to get a preview.