"As of today, I think there is little ambiguity left that the U.S. administration would like to have a space force as a sixth branch of the military," Saadia Pekkanen, director of the Space Security Initiative at the University of Washington's Henry M. Jackson School of International Studies, says in an email. "But there is still ambiguity about how it will be trained, whether it will be effective, and what it will mean in the rapidly expanding age of commercial space worldwide. It is easy to talk about space as a war-fighting domain, and about the need to defend and dominate. Nobody disagrees with that, since everyone knows dependence on space assets is America’s Achilles heel. But determining attack and attribution, and then fashioning a counter response, in the hazardous space domain, much less a conflict, is complicated to say the least. So we have to think about that very hard. And if we are going to fight, we have to start thinking also about what victory will look like in space," she adds.