In the case of infectious disease, the objective to "cure, prevent, and manage" is trickier than it looks. Eric Rubin, an immunology and infectious diseases researcher at Harvard's T.H. Chan School of Public Health, says that pathogens—which are any infectious disease-causing bugs like bacteria, viruses, or other microorganisms—evolve at different rates. The ones that evolve at a slow rate, like the bacterium that causes leprosy or the one that causes Guinea worm disease can be cured. But addressing rapidly evolving pathogens like the flu is far more challenging.