To make rust-resistant wheats, Miriam Kinyua, a researcher at Eldoret University in Kenya, sent wheat seeds popular with Kenyan farmers to the FAO/IAEA joint laboratories. There, the seeds got blasted with a tiny bit of radiation, enough to damage their DNA. That created a pool of seeds with different random mutations, any of which might resist Ug99 just by happenstance. Kinyua then grew and tested the seeds for their Ug99 resistance, ultimately coming up with two types of wheats that worked. The entire process is like a sped-up version of evolution, which works on random mutations that naturally appear in populations. Crop scientists have used this technique, called mutation breeding, since the 1940s.