The upending of our expectations can give us chills, too, Huron says. And shivers can crop up when we feel any sort of surprise or intense emotion, even in music: a change in volume or the moment a singer begins singing. People usually get the chills at tonally "sad" passages, says Jaak Panksepp, a neuroscientist at Washington State University. He also hypothesizes that certain tones in music mimic a "human separation cry," and that shivers result from the perception of losing a loved one. The same moment in the same song can give someone chills over and over again—the response resists habituation, Huron says. "The brain can tolerate thousands of false alarms in order to protect us from the one occasion when the alarm is real," he says.