Receiving gifts also has a strong effect. A 1998 study led by Charles Areni, now of Macquarie University in Australia, asked 174 college students, half male and half female, to write down a memorable gift-related experience. The majority, about 71 percent, described receiving a gift. The results were even more pronounced along gender lines: Among females, 92 percent focused on getting versus giving. Among males, it was 55 percent.