Around 6,000 years ago, agriculture and pastoralism (raising livestock) started to grow across the Earth's lands, while foraging declined. At that time, 42 percent of study regions had agriculture. The surveys also found that intensive agriculture—that is, yearly crop production—began much earlier than previous estimates. In 27 regions, the onset of agriculture was over 1,000 years earlier than a model called the HYDE, or History Database of the Global Environment, had estimated. "We see hundreds to thousands of years of earlier onset of intensive agriculture in most regions of the world that currently have agriculture," says Ellis. "It's a much deeper view of when humans first began to run agriculture continuously over the landscape."