The Times talked to several airline spokespeople, who explained that each airline would have to fly a plane with an individual gadget in operation, without any passengers, to validate the device's safety. Each version of the Kindle, Nook, iPad or other similar device would have to be tested the same way, for every plane in every fleet of every airline. So needless to say, this is expensive and logistically challenging, especially for smaller airlines like Southwest, Jetblue and Virgin. The FAA is trying to figure out how to make the testing process smoother, working with gadget manufacturers, airplane instrument makers and other groups. It does not plan to include smartphones, in part because there are so many models — it would be next to impossible to test them all.