Not everyone agrees that collective consent can or should be a requirement for all genetic studies. For instance, de Vries said, “it depends what sort of community we’re talking about,” drawing a contrast between small, rural, communities and larger populations spread across several cities or countries. “If we’re talking about the entire Yoruba population, who would you even talk to?” she added. The Yoruba are an ethic group of more than 20 million individuals, most of whom live in Nigeria, with smaller populations in Benin, Togo, and across several diaspora communities. De Vries believes the onus lies on researchers to “think in terms of respecting communities,” rather than in terms of collective consent.