In a 2018 study, Swain's team evaluated the number of extreme storms and droughts expected as the climate warms, projecting that wet extremes will go up by 100 to 200 percent by the end of this century. Extreme dry years, similar to the 2013 to 2014 drought year, will become more common by 2050, especially in Southern California. "Precipitation whiplash," or the immediate shift from a drought to flooded winter will go up by about 50 percent. This will eliminate the so-called "shoulder season" that typically acts a buffer between weather extremes.When it does rain, it'll be within a shorter window in the winter. "We're making an already narrow season more concentrated, at the expense of the shoulder season," says Swain.