In this study, abstainers with higher levels of illnesses such as heart disease, diabetes and obesity were those at highest risk of dementia. It may be that having a physical illness is the reason that these people abstained from alcohol. These same physical illnesses may also be the reason for developing dementia. In this way, physical illness unrelated to alcohol consumption could be a confounder for both abstinence and dementia. Drinking may just be a red herring.