The Academy bestowed the other half jointly to Greg Smith, at the University of Missouri, and Gregory Winter, at Cambridge University, for the development and application of a process called phage display. Smith developed the phage display technique in 1985. He utilized a virus that infects bacteria—called a bacteriophage—to develop new proteins. Winter later used this technique to direct the evolution of antibodies. In 2002, this method produced the first phage display drug, prescribed to treat rheumatoid arthritis, psoriasis, and inflammatory bowel diseases.