This is all good news for the future of in vitro fertilization techniques in humans. But it doesn't mean we are there yet. Because this was the first study of this kind, researchers will need to perform many more studies like it before it can be safely tried in humans. But it does represent a step forward. And a needed one at that. The researchers say they hope the technique can help survivors of childhood cancers whose treatments have damaged their ovaries, making them infertile. In the future, they'll need to determine how long the 3D printed ovaries remain alive inside the body and whether or not they can keep functioning for a lifetime, which is the ultimate goal, Shah says. For now, though, this study is an important stepping stone for others in the field. If this new architectural scaffolding is indeed the most successful, then future work can focus on how to improve it, and make it even more effective.