This story has been updated. It was first published on June 10, 2020.
As vaccines continue to roll out, the highly contagious delta variant keeps spreading throughout the country. COVID-19 hospitalizations have doubled in the past two weeks in the US alone, and some states have reinstated mask mandates for any indoor activities—for vaccinated and unvaccinated folks alike. This is in line with guidelines from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention that recommend everyone wear face coverings wherever social distancing is not possible—even outdoors.
We still have a long way to go to get over this pandemic, especially when not everyone has access to the shot. Children now account for 19 percent of new COVID-19 cases in the US, and the Food and Drug Administration has not yet approved a vaccine for kids under 12. This makes them particularly vulnerable and dependent on other prevention methods such as mask-wearing and social distancing—especially as schools start to open up in September.
Masks are still very much part of our lives, and a great way to protect yourself and everyone in your community from COVID-19. Whether it’s for you or the little ones in your home, you can easily make your own face masks—no sewing machines needed.
How to make a mask for kids and adults
Recent studies have been able to confirm cloth masks can reduce the number of droplets that make it into the air, and that may carry the coronavirus. This is why wearing a cloth mask is better than wearing no mask at all.
The CDC recommends these face coverings as long as the fit is right, they’re made of two or more layers of fabric and have no valves in them. But let’s make this clear: masks, no matter how effective, are not guaranteed to protect you from COVID-19 if you don’t complement them with social distancing and good hand hygiene
[Related: How to wear a face mask for maximum protection]
And good hygiene extends to cloth masks, too. Everyone, especially those taking care of a sick loved one, should have at least a couple of face coverings so they can sterilize one while wearing the other.
Our tutorial is a simple project for people who don’t have a sewing machine, adapted from MakerMask by Helpful Engineering, a global open-source COVID-19 project.
- Time: 90 minutes if sewn by hand
- Material cost: less than $5
- Difficulty: medium
- Needle and thread
- Clothing iron
- Sewing or safety pins
- Permanent marker
- (Optional) Seam ripper
- 1 medium non-woven polypropylene reusable grocery bag
- 2 pipe cleaners (or plastic-coated twist ties)
(Optional) 60 inches of ribbon, between ½ and 1 inch wide
1. Wash the reusable grocery bag.
- Warning: We specifically recommend a reusable grocery bag made of non-woven polypropylene (NWPP for short), not a disposable plastic one. It may sound obvious, but you’ll need to be able to breathe through the mask. Stay away from insulated bags (these usually have some foil material on the inside) and waterproof bags lined with plastic, too.
- Note: If you can, choose the bag with the longest handles you can find. This project will be easier if you can use them as straps for the mask. If the handles aren’t long enough, we’ll explain how to make straps out of ribbon.
2. Cut the sides off the grocery bag so the material lays flat. Don’t cut off the handles.
3. Cut the material into two sheets. If your bag has a seam at the bottom, cut it like you did the side seams. You’ll get two clean sheets of NWPP, each with its own handle.
4. Measure and cut one sheet. Using your ruler, measure the top edge of the bag to find the center. Mark it with your permanent marker. Using that as a starting point, measure back toward each handle 4 ½ inches and mark again. From each mark, measure down 9 inches and draw parallel vertical cutting lines. Connect the lines at the bottom. You should have a 9-by-9-inch square with a finished (sewn) edge at the top with the handle.
- For kid-size masks (ages 5 to 12): Using the exact middle of the top edge of your bag as the starting point, measure back toward each handle 3 ½ inches and mark the fabric. From each mark, measure down 7 inches and draw parallel vertical cutting lines. Connect the lines at the bottom. You should have a 7-by-7-inch square with a finished (sewn) edge at the top with the handle.
- Note: If your handle is spaced too widely to fit inside the square you measured, the simplest solution is to use some ribbon (Step 9).
5. Repeat Step 4 on the other sheet of material.
6. Sew the mask’s side seams. Place one sheet with the wrong side (the bag’s former interior) up, and fold half an inch of material in from the edge opposite the handle. Iron the fold on low heat to set it. Then, sew it a quarter inch from the edge. Place the other sheet with the right side (the bag’s former exterior) up, and like the other sheet, fold it in a half-inch, iron it, and sew it a quarter-inch in from the edge.
- Warning: Polypropylene is a type of plastic. Using a high heat setting will melt it, ruining your project and, most likely, your iron. If there’s no “poly” setting, try the lowest one (usually silk) and increase it slightly if the fold doesn’t set.
- Note: If you’re not using your bag’s handles, take each of your squares and sew the seams of two opposite sides as instructed.
7. Place the sheets together. Your mask will have two layers of fabric. Place one of the sheets on your work surface with the handle facing to the left. Place the other one on top of it with the handle facing to the right. Pin in place.
- Note: We recommend that the printed side of the sheets face the same direction, so the back of the mask is a different color than the front. This will help ensure you don’t accidentally put the mask on the wrong way, with the contaminated side against your mouth and nose.
8. Make the head ties. Fold the handles in half and cut them at the center. Hold the mask centered over your face with the handles coming out of the sides, and make sure the handles are long enough to reach the back of your head with at least 4 inches to spare.
9. (Optional) Make straps out of ribbon. If the handles of your bag are not long enough to become straps or you’re not using the handles of the bag at all, you’ll need to make your own head ties. If the insufficient handles are still attached to your NWPP sheets, cut them off or use a seam ripper to take them out. Hold the mask in the center of your face and use your measuring tape to figure out the length of each strap—they should each be long enough to go from the edge of your face to the back of your head with at least four extra inches for tying. Cut the ribbons and pin them where the handles used to be. Check the fit by putting your mask on. If the length of the ribbons is right, double your thread and sew the pieces into place on the wrong side of the sheets.
10. Sew the sheets together. Double your thread and sew around all the edges.
11. Finish the bottom edge. Like you did in Step 6, make a half-inch fold at the bottom and iron it. Sew it closed a quarter-inch from the edge.
12. Make the adjustable noseband. Again, fold half an inch of the top edge over and iron it. Twist the pipe cleaners or twist ties together and cut them to the same width as the mask. Fold in their ends to blunt them. Tuck the metal ties inside the fold and pin the fold over them. Then, sew the fold below and on the sides of the ties to hold them in place.
12. Make three folds to pleat the mask for expansion. Pleats should be approximately 1 ½ inches wide on the outside, a half-inch wide on the inside, and be parallel to the nose band. If it helps, mark lines on your fabric, fold them, and then iron them in place. Stitch these in place by sewing both sides a quarter-inch in from the edge. This time, double back your stitch to make sure the pleat seam is strong.
- For kid-size masks (ages 5 to 12): Keeps pleats approximately 1 inch wide on the outside and a half-inch wide on the inside. Make sure it’s not too big by having the child try it on. Adjust the pleats as necessary and pin in place before setting and sewing.
13. Sterilize your mask. Before using it for the first time, submerge your mask in boiling water for 5 minutes. Repeat this step between uses. For other methods, check out our guide on how to sanitize face masks.
It’s important to remember that a face mask by itself is not enough. Make sure you never touch the part of the covering that goes over your nose and mouth, and when you’re done using it, sterilize it, let it dry completely (in the sun if you have access) to stave off any bacteria growth. Finally, store the mask in a clean, plastic, resealable container.
This DIY mask is not meant to be donated to a hospital, but kept for yourself, your family, and your community.
The difference between N95 and surgical masks
If you’re wondering about other types of face coverings, let’s talk about N95 respirators and surgical masks. N95s are stiff masks with a filter that blocks 95 percent of airborne particles and are fit-tested to each healthcare worker to ensure they create a sealed barrier. Like most personal protective equipment (PPE), N95 masks are meant to be discarded after each use.
In contrast, surgical masks are loose-fitting coverings made of pleated melt-blown fabric: a fine mesh of synthetic polymer fibers that allows the wearer to breathe while blocking tiny particles that could carry the virus. However, they don’t fit as tightly as N95 respirators, so they won’t provide the same protection against smaller airborne particles that may carry the coronavirus, which may persist in the air for minutes to hours.
[Related: Why you shouldn’t ever wear your mask around your neck]
Surgical masks aren’t meant to shield the wearer from infection, but to protect others by corralling any infectious droplets that may come out of your mouth or nose—whether you’re symptomatic or not.
No matter what you wear, please follow instructions from your local authorities and remember that getting the COVID-19 vaccine, social distancing, thoroughly washing your hands, and staying home are still the best ways to protect yourself and your family from the virus.