A species called Pseudomonas syringae, a plant pathogen, is responsible for frost damage to crops, and is so good at nucleating ice crystals around itself that it's used to generate artificial snow for ski resorts. Scientists have long known that P. syringae plays an important role in biology and atmospheric science, because it can form ice at temperatures above freezing. But until now, researchers have never taken a close look at what goes on right at the border between a bacterium and water, as it gets turned into ice. Using detailed imaging tools, researchers have looked at the specific proteins in the cell membrane to understand how it creates a lattice on which ice can form. They published a study with their findings today in the journal Science Advances.