The term "artificial intelligence," or the simulation of intelligence in computers or machines, was coined back in 1956, only a decade after the creation of the first electronic digital computers. Hope for the field was initially high, but by the 1970s, when early predictions did not pan out, an "AI winter" set in. When Tallinn found Yudkowsky's essays, AI was undergoing a renaissance. Scientists were developing AIs that excelled in specific areas, such as winning at chess, cleaning the kitchen floor, and recognizing human speech. (In 2007, the resounding win at Jeopardy! of IBM's Watson was still four years away, while the triumph at Go of DeepMind's AlphaGo was eight years off.) Such "narrow" AIs, as they're called, have superhuman capabilities, but only in their specific areas of dominance. A chess-playing AI can't clean the floor or take you from point A to point B. But super-intelligent AI, Tallinn came to believe, will combine a wide range of skills in one entity. More darkly, it also might use data generated by smartphone-toting humans to excel at social manipulation.