The first two experiments asked undergrad students to complete a visual perception task identifying the number of dots on the left or right side of the screen. The participants were paid by how many trials they completed, not whether their answers were correct, and they were given more money if they claimed there were more dots on the right side. The second two experiments used a sample of participants from across the U.S., using Amazon's Mechanical Turk. Participants in one group were told to send either a truthful or a deceptive message to a virtual partner, in exchange for 25 cents for a truthful message and 50 cents for a false one. The other group was asked to solve puzzles for money, but they didn't have to prove they solved them, only claim that they did.