Amyloids are fibrous protein aggregates with distinct structures--basically proteins that didn't fold quite the right way. This makes them distinctive as a group but difficult to distinguish between. Many neurological disorders like those mentioned above are associated with specific amyloids. Identify the amyloid, and you can identify the disorder. That's been difficult until now, but the UCSD team has developed a set of fluorescent markers that change colors depending on what amyloid they encounter.