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Dextre, the Canadian robot living idly on the exterior of the International Space Station, will freeload no more. Dextre’s first major job as the ISS’s man on the outside will demonstrate key technologies that will hopefully lead to future robotic systems that can refuel satellites in orbit, creating a new breed of legacy satellites that don’t have to be scrapped simply because their fuel supplies have dwindled.

Take a look inside Dextre’s toolbox

Dextre–or the Special Purpose Dexterous Manipulator–is a two-armed robot designed to assist with spacewalk activities on the ISS and, in some cases, replace those extravehicular activities. But thus far, Dextre has been more of a helping hand, performing menial tasks like unpacking cargo.

But it’s now Dextre’s time to cut its teeth on some real cutting-edge space labor. When Atlantis launches for the ISS next month, it will deliver Dextre a collection of fittings and tools that match up to the fixtures integrated into various satellites and spacecraft. Dextre will use these over the next two years to demonstrate that a robotic system is capable of refueling a satellite in orbit, paving the way for a future robotic mission that will try to refuel an aging NOAA weather satellite.

But this isn’t simply pumping gas. The current crop of satellite in orbit–that more than 350 commercial satellites and another 100 government-backed satellites–weren’t designed with refueling in mind. They pack no systems to aid in robotic navigation or the reflectors or symbol language that computer vision systems often use for robotic vehicular docking.

These satellites were basically designed to never be refueled at all, so there are myriad problems spanning robotics, satellite design, navigation systems, and computer vision that have to be solved before a robotic mission can launch. On top of all that, Dextre will also demo rudimentary satellite repair capabilities.

That’s a big job, but the payoff is potentially huge. Satellites, of course, are expensive to build and very expensive to haul into orbit. Extending their lives could spell big savings down here on the ground while helping us get the most out of our space investments. As such, NASA hopes to partner with a commercial entity to develop a satellite refueling and servicing business–a collaboration that, if Dextre is successful, could launch a robotic mission to refuel that NOAA satellite and potentially nine other satellites that by that point will be running on fumes.

Discovery News

SARAH (Self-Adaptive Robotic Auxiliary Hand)

Now, Dextre’s simple gripper attaches to only certain places on the ISS. Sarah, a three-fingered gripper designed by CSA engineers at Laval University in Quebec, will allow it to grab a variety of handles.

BMT (Blanket-Manipulation Tool)

The ISS uses Velcro-attached thermal blankets to keep external components from getting too hot or cold. The Blanket-Manipulation Tool, another Laval project, could help Dextre to replace or adjust them.

REPAIR

The vice-grip clamper on the end of Dextre’s free arm will lock onto remote power-control modules–which act like circuit breakers–removing old ones and inserting replacements.

CONTROL

Most often, mission control will operate the robot remotely while the astronauts work. Station occupants can also control it using two joysticks and three displays in the U.S. Destiny Laboratory module.

REACH

The mobile base travels along the main truss of the ISS, with Canadarm2 and Dextre attached, putting the robot within reach of critical areas of the station. Its cameras offer mission control a better look at big problems, so repairs can be carefully planned.

GRAB

As Canadarm2 extends, one of Dextre’s arms anchors the robot to the station while the other does the work. Seven elbow-like joints give each arm a tremendous range of motion.

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