The academic publishing industry generates about $10 billion a year, and each journal article costs about $3,000 to publish. Some scientists, like John Willinsky of the Public Knowledge Project at Stanford, choose to pay the publisher $3,000 to make their research available to everyone. But academics with smaller grants—often in the humanities—can't always afford it. So libraries have started pitching in too. Last April, a group of 3,000 libraries banded together to pay for institutional access to particle physics papers. However, instead of keeping the secrets of matter within their university, they released these papers to the public. "Libraries don't gain anything by having exclusive licenses," says Willinsky. "We have an obligation to the public, and this would be a good way to support it."