Of course, Washington is a relatively small city, built to serve government. New York is massive and unruly. Early this year New York Mayor Michael Bloomberg appointed Frank Libutti, a former three-star Marine lieutenant general and special assistant for homeland security, to the new city post of deputy commissioner for counter-terrorism. The NYPD has hired an infectious disease specialist and created a board of doctors to advise on nuclear, chemical, and biological threats. What Libutti's group is up to is largely a secret. Although New Yorkers periodically hear bulletins about beefed up security-bridges and tunnels are occasionally shut down, or subject to stepped-up vehicle searches-and have witnessed massive police response to events like the World Economic Forum in late January and the July 4 fireworks, New York security officials are not keeping a high profile or handing out a lot of brochures. (Ads for a new antiterror hotline appeared in newspapers in June, but officials were not forthcoming.) Libutti was unavailable to talk to Popular Science, and, when asked if someone else could describe the antiterrorism strategy, a spokesman declined: "His office is made up of police officers, and police officers have never dealt with this issue before." Meanwhile, officials in Mayor Bloomberg's office refused to comment, though one conceded that there's not much to talk about until the cities, states, and the federal government agree to fund new technologies and address manpower needs. By summer, the hot topic was the new Department of Homeland Security.