Baumeister says the results are the most dramatic he has seen in a quarter-century of research on self-esteem, rejection, and aggression. "Connecting with others is one of the deepest and most powerful human drives, and thwarting it has a big impact," he concludes. "After being rejected, people cannot think straight for a while." Fortunately, says Baumeister, the effects of a single rejection appear to be short-lived. But how intelligence is affected by repeated rejections is an open question worthy of further study.