There will certainly be a long debate about this; many poorer countries, with less resources to treat a potential outbreak of a virus as destructive as smallpox, have long pleaded for the destruction of the remaining instances, for fear of it somehow escaping. But the U.S. and a few other countries would rather study it, and hopefully create a true cure. Several have been produced, with varying degrees of success, but the World Health Organization wants to keep working with (and against) the virus. The U.S. does not have the power to unilaterally decide the fate of smallpox, and the dispute is unlikely to be decided this year. So for now, it rejoins rinderpest in the freezer.