It's well documented that women earn less than men, even when they're doing supposedly equal work. It's less obvious whether biology, socialization, or some confluence of other factors causes this discrepancy. Economists Kristen Schilt and Matthew Wiswall thought up a clever tactic to control for personhood (i.e. "human capital") while changing their subjects' gender: they looked at the labor market outcomes of transsexuals. Schilt and Wiswall discovered that women who become men earn an average of 1.5% more than they had before their gender change; men who become women earn 32% less. Their paper also points out that male-to-female transgendered workers wait an average of ten years longer than their female-to-male counterparts to transition, perhaps because of the perceived economic advantage of being outwardly male in the workplace: "Becoming a woman often brings a loss of authority, harassment, and termination," they note, while "becoming a man often brings an increase in respect and authority."