These findings follow a February study on queen bees, which suggested that low sperm viability could play a part in the queens' failure rates. "It's not the queens themselves, it's the drones. It's significant," U.S. Department of Agriculture bee scientist Jeff Pettis told Phys.org. Because the drones lived, they went on to breed with the queens, but having more dead sperm made the reproduction fail. These findings together paint a grim picture for colonies that can't sustain the damaging effects of these insecticides, but it's still unclear how this impacts bees in the wild, or how widespread the repercussions actually are.