PH We can write optimization algorithms so that as the system's workload goes up, it will automatically allocate more storage or spray information-processing requests to a server on the other side of the world that's not being used. We need what we call an "immune system" to combat viruses on the Internet. Once it detects a virus, an immune system could send a cure out over the Internet faster than the virus could spread. But ultimately, we can make life simpler for users by, paradoxically, making an autonomic system that's more complex. For instance, we have a project here at IBM called Blue Gene: the world's biggest supercomputer. It has millions of independent streams of work going on simultaneously. Now, what happens when one of those streams gets clogged up and gives a dumb answer? Think of your PC for a moment: When something goes wrong, you do alt-control-delete and all that garbage and then reboot. Everyone hates it. But now imagine your system has, like Blue Gene, multiple parallel streams of work going on. If one gets clogged up, it just automatically goes to another stream. If you've got millions of streams . . . well, you can have a thousand or so that aren't working. Obviously, this isn't something that's going to happen tomorrow. But we're making progress in all the key areas.