In 1953, people had yet to see a close-up image of Mars. But that didn't dim the prospect of one day living there. In March of that year, Popular Science featured a plan—developed by a graduate student with the input of government scientists—outlining how 33 earthlings might one day live on the Red Planet. Their spaceship would serve as the base's hub. A heart-shaped ring of solar panels would warm the living quarters, and wind generators would provide power. And alien invaders? There was a plan for them too. Decontaminating mist would kill any Martian germs clinging to the crew's space suits as they entered the base.