In 2006 the rangers tested the collars on a repeat offender named Kimani, who had broken through electric fences 20 consecutive nights and caused thousands of dollars in damage to crops and farm equipment. "Most farmers have no idea that their field is being raided until the damage is done," says Jake Wall, a software programmer for the Save the Elephants Tracking Animals for Conservation program. Now Kimani's collar texts his hourly position to a server in Nairobi, where Wall's AnimalLink software compares the animal's location with a database of virtual borders established around villages and farms. If Kimani strays across one of those borders, the system alerts researchers and rangers in the area so they can coax him away from trouble. "For every elephant we've collared, there are 20 more that also raid crops," Wall says. "We hope that curbing the behavior of the major troublemakers will rub off on the other elephants."