As a major supplier of energy, we believe we have a responsibility to be a leader in finding and implementing solutions to climate change. BP was the first major energy company to publicly acknowledge the need to take steps against climate change. We are now investing $350 million over five years to reduce our internal CO2 emissions by up to one million tonnes each year. We are one of the world’s biggest investors in lower carbon fuels and technologies.
For more information about BP’s efforts to promote a better understanding of climate change, and to control greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, please visit our climate change section.
Hydrogen has the long-term potential to be the ultimate carbon-free fuel for the future. However, unlike oil, gas or coal commercially useable quantities of hydrogen do not occur naturally and must be manufactured from fossil fuels, renewable energy sources or nuclear power.
BP is leading many areas relevant to the development of a “hydrogen-fueled economy” in both the transport and power industries. In transport we are exploring the many potential pathways to the provision of hydrogen as a transport fuel. There are many hurdles to overcome, including, technical, economic and issues of public acceptability. Our approach is to learn by doing and we are involved in the world’s two largest hydrogen re-fuelling demonstration projects in Europe and the US. In hydrogen for power, we are applying our capabilities in reservoir management, hydrocarbon production and processing, and in power development to bring together the components that allow the manufacture and supply of hydrogen to power stations whilst capturing and storing the associated carbon dioxide.
With our partners, we are developing a world first project in Scotland, where we aim to “decarbonise” natural gas from the North Sea to produce hydrogen that will be used to produce power for the national grid. 90% of the CO2 from this process will be captured and re-injected into geological formations thousands of feet below the seabed. When operational the plant will produce 350 megawatts of almost carbon-free electricity.
By shifting the balance of the energy fuel mix from coal and oil towards lower carbon fuels such as natural gas, we can reduce our carbon footprint. Natural gas produces about half the amount of CO2 per unit of delivered energy relative to coal. Today, natural gas makes-up about 40% of BP’s portfolio. We have opened supplies to areas in the US, South Korea and Mexico that were previously dependent on high-carbon fuels.
Cleaner fuels and advanced lubricants
Today, BP is offering cleaner fuels like BP Ultimate or Amoco Ultimate in over 100 cities worldwide. Ultimate fuels can increase performance and improve engine efficiency: independent tests in the UK showed reductions of CO2 per kilometer of 2.2%, relative to regular fuels. BP’s advanced multigrade and synthetic lubricants are helping to reduce emissions of CO2 by improving vehicle efficiency. A study in India estimated that the use of BP’s multigrade lubricants by heavy goods vehicles in India reduced emissions by 0.8 million tonnes CO2 per year (2002-2003).
Solar panel Solar power
Solar power provides carbon-free electricity. BP Solar is one of the world’s leading solar companies. We provide a wide range of solar solutions for homes, businesses and remote locations around the world. In the US, BP is teaming with The Home Depot at more than 200 stores in California, New Jersey and Long Island to make it easier for homeowners to access solar power. In India, our joint venture Tata BP Solar has brought power to over 100 remote villages, improving access to water and providing light and communications.
BP is exploring the potential for increasing investment in wind energy. In 2004, our jointly owned 22.5 megawatt wind farm near Rotterdam, in The Netherlands, completed its first full year of commercial operation and provided sufficient carbon-free electricity to power 20,000 typical Dutch homes and displace some 20,000 tonnes of CO2. We are currently examining the feasibility of developing similar projects at other selected sites in Europe and beyond.
BP supports a number of major international research initiatives seeking solutions to global climate change, including a Clean Energy Research and Education Programme at Tsinghua University in China, the Carbon Mitigation Initiative, covering carbon capture and storage and other global technologies at Princeton University in the US and a programme to research future technologies for energy use and storage in buildings at Imperial College in the UK.
Our own operations
Greenhouse gas emissions from our operations in 2004 were equivalent to 81.7 million tonnes CO2. Since 2001 approximately half of our total underlying emissions growth (around 7 million tonnes) has been offset by sustainable efficiency projects. Significant emission reductions achieved in 2004 were: * 400,000 tonnes from reduced flaring and venting of gas in Canada, Abu Dhabi and Trinidad
250,000 tonnes from energy efficiency measures in the USA at the Whiting refinery & Texas City
100,000 tonnes from energy efficiency measures taken across the petrochemicals business
beginning in 2004, each year approximately 1 million tonnes of CO2 will be compressed and injected into wells 1,800 metres below the In Salah gas reservoir in the Algeria desert. This reduces GHGs by the equivalent of taking 200,000 cars off the road