Here at Popular Science, we love satellite images. They offer cool views of Earthly phenomena such as plankton blooms and erupting volcanoes. They give important perspective on the impact of natural disasters such as floods and fires. Seeing stuff from space can be a bit disorienting, however. But fear not. The Earth Observatory, NASA’s public site for its Earth sciences, has listed some cool patterns to look for while interpreting satellite images. Some highlights:

  • A line of clouds can indicate there are mountains below, as the mountains push warmer air upwards to higher elevations, where it cools and forms clouds. A line of vortices in the ocean, on the other hand, can indicate there are peaks below the surface of the water, perturbing the water’s flow.
  • There’s an optical illusion called relief inversion that can happen with satellite images. Mountains appear to be canyons, or vice versa. The Earth Observatory explains:

Happy Earth-watching.

NASA Earth Observatory