The Mast Camera, also known as the Mastcam, isn't the first camera ever strapped to a rover, but it could easily be the most advanced. On board Curiosity, it'll take color images and video, and be able to stitch the images together to create beautiful panoramas
of the red planet's canyon-scapes. It features high-resolution lenses and will be able to take HD video at 10 frames per second, while a monochromatic setting can take single-color images to help analyze light patterns in different portions of the electromagnetic spectrum.
It's a lot of information, but it comes packaged with an internal data buffer that can store thousands of images--or hours of HD video--to send back to Earth.